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A diphthong (11px IPA: /IPA: / or IPA: /IPA: /; Greek: Category:grc:δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable. Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets: That is, the tongue moves during the pronunciation of the vowel. In most dialects of English, the words eye, hay, boy, low, and cow contain diphthongs.
Diphthongs contrast with monophthongs, where the tongue doesn't move and only one vowel sound is heard in a syllable. Where two adjacent vowel sounds occur in different syllables; for example, the English word re-elect, the result is described as hiatus, not as a diphthong.
Diphthongs often form when separate vowels are run together in rapid speech during a conversation. However, there are also unitary diphthongs, as in the English examples above, which are heard by listeners as single-vowel sounds (phonemes).
International Phonetic Alphabet
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, pure vowels are transcribed with one letter, as in English sun IPA: [sʌn]. Diphthongs are transcribed with two letters, as in English sign IPA: [saɪ̯n] or sane IPA: [seɪ̯n]. The two vowel symbols are chosen to represent the beginning and ending positions of the tongue, though this can be only approximate.
The non-syllabic diacritic (an inverted breve below, IPA: ‹ ̯ ›) can be placed under the less prominent component to show that it is part of a diphthong rather than a separate vowel. It is, however, usually omitted in languages such as English, where there is not likely to be any confusion.
Falling and rising
Falling (or descending) diphthongs start with a vowel quality of higher prominence (higher pitch or volume) and end in a semivowel with less prominence, like IPA: [aɪ̯] in eye, while rising (or ascending) diphthongs begin with a less prominent semivowel and end with a more prominent full vowel, similar to the IPA: [ja] in yard. (Note that "falling" and "rising" in this context do not refer to vowel height; the terms "opening" and "closing" are used instead. See below.) The less prominent component in the diphthong may also be transcribed as an approximant, thus IPA: [aj] in eye and IPA: [ja] in yard. However, when the diphthong is analysed as a single phoneme, both elements are often transcribed with vowel letters (IPA: /aɪ̯/, IPA: /ɪ̯a/). Note also that semivowels and approximants are not equivalent in all treatments, and in the English and Italian languages, among others, many phoneticians do not consider rising combinations to be diphthongs, but rather sequences of approximant and vowel. There are many languages (such as Romanian) that contrast one or more rising diphthongs with similar sequences of a glide and a vowel in their phonetic inventory (see semivowel for examples).
Closing, opening, and centering
In closing diphthongs, the second element is more close than the first (e.g. IPA: [ai]); in opening diphthongs, the second element is more open (e.g. IPA: [ia]). Closing diphthongs tend to be falling (IPA: [ai̯]), and opening diphthongs are generally rising (IPA: [i̯a]), as open vowels are more sonorous and therefore tend to be more prominent. However, exceptions to this rule are not rare in the world's languages. In Finnish, for instance, the opening diphthongs IPA: /ie̯/ and IPA: /uo̯/ are true falling diphthongs, since they begin louder and with higher pitch and fall in prominence during the diphthong.
A third, rare type of diphthong that is neither opening nor closing is height-harmonic diphthongs, with both elements at the same vowel height. These were particularly characteristic of Old English, which had diphthongs such as IPA: /æɑ̯/, IPA: /eo̯/.
A centering diphthong is one that begins with a more peripheral vowel and ends with a more central one, such as IPA: [ɪə̯], IPA: [ɛə̯], and IPA: [ʊə̯] in Received Pronunciation or IPA: [iə̯] and IPA: [uə̯] in Irish. Many centering diphthongs are also opening diphthongs (IPA: [iə̯], IPA: [uə̯]).
diphthongs may contrast in how far they open or close. For example, Samoan contrasts low-to-mid with low-to-high diphthongs:
Languages differ in the length of diphthongs, measured in terms of morae. In languages with phonemically short and long vowels, diphthongs typically behave like long vowels, and are pronounced with a similar length. In languages with only one phonemic length for pure vowels, however, diphthongs may be behave like pure vowels. For example, in Icelandic, both monophthongs and diphthongs are pronounced long before single consonants and short before most consonant clusters.
Some languages contrast short and long diphthongs. In some languages, such as Old English, these behave like short and long vowels, occupying one and two morae, respectively. In other languages, however, such as Ancient Greek, they occupy two and three morae, respectively, with the first element rather than the diphthong as a whole behaving as a short or long vowel. Languages that contrast three quantities in diphthongs are extremely rare, but not unheard of; Northern Sami is known to contrast long, short and "finally stressed" diphthongs, the last of which are distinguished by a long second element.
Difference between a vowel and semivowel
While there are a number of similarities, diphthongs are not the same as a combination of a vowel and an approximant or glide. Most importantly, diphthongs are fully contained in the syllable nucleus while a semivowel or glide is restricted to the syllable boundaries (either the onset or the coda). This often manifests itself phonetically by a greater degree of constriction. though this phonetic distinction is not always clear. The English word yes, for example, consists of a palatal glide followed by a monophthong rather than a rising diphthong. In addition, while the segmental elements must be different in diphthongs so that IPA: [ii̯], when it occurs in a language, does not contrast with IPA: [iː] though it is possible to contrast IPA: [ij] and IPA: [iː].
Nonetheless, in practice the choice of treating a diphthong or diphthong-like element as a single phoneme, a sequence of two vowels or a combination of a vowel and a glide is based not on the phonetic nature of the diphthong but on systemic properties of the language. The following are examples of systemic characteristics that tend to determine which analysis is chosen:
- The presence of alternations among related words or related dialects between diphthongs and monophthongs, sequences of vowel and consonant, or sequences of two vowels in separate syllables
- The restrictions (or lack thereof) on the diphthongs that can occur
- The existence of glides such as IPA: /w/ and IPA: /j/ as separate phonemes in the language
- The behavior of the diphthong when a vowel directly follows
- The historical origin of the diphthong
Furthermore, falling diphthongs are more likely to be analyzed as unit phonemes than rising diphthongs.
As an example, the English diphthongs are usually considered single phonemes because they (mostly) originated historically as monophthongs, alternate with monophthongs in pairs such as divine vs. divinity, maintain their coherence when another vowel follows, and other, similar-looking diphthongs like IPA: /eu/ do not exist in the language. On the other hand, Japanese IPA: /ai/ is normally analyzed as a sequence of two vowels; Spanish IPA: /ai/ is normally analyzed as either a sequence of two vowels or of a vowel and a glide, depending on the analysis.
In words coming from Middle English, most cases of the Modern English diphthongs IPA: [aɪ̯, oʊ̯, eɪ̯, aʊ̯] originated from the Middle English long monophthongs IPA: [iː, ɔː, aː, uː] through the Great Vowel Shift, although some cases of IPA: [oʊ̯, eɪ̯] originated from the Middle English diphthongs IPA: [ɔu̯, aɪ̯]. Since these diphthongs in most cases originated from monophthongs, they are considered single phonemes and not sequences of two phonemes.
|low||IPA: [əʊ̯]||IPA: [əʉ̯]||IPA: [oʊ̯]|
|loud||IPA: [aʊ̯]||IPA: [æɔ̯]||IPA: [aʊ̯]||IPA: [aʊ̯]|
|lout||IPA: [əʊ̯][t2 1]|
|lied||IPA: [aɪ̯]||IPA: [ɑe̯]||IPA: [aɪ̯]|
|light||IPA: [əɪ̯][t2 1]|
|lane||IPA: [eɪ̯]||IPA: [æɪ̯]||IPA: [eɪ̯]|
|loin||IPA: [ɔɪ̯]||IPA: [oɪ̯]||IPA: [ɔɪ̯]|
|loon||IPA: [uː]||IPA: [ʉː]||IPA: [ʊu̯][t2 2]|
|lean||IPA: [iː]||IPA: [ɪi̯][t2 2]||IPA: [ɪi̯][t2 2]|
|leer||IPA: [ɪə̯]||IPA: [ɪə̯]||IPA: [ɪɚ̯][t2 3]|
|lair||IPA: [ɛə̯][t2 4]||IPA: [eː][t2 4]||IPA: [ɛɚ̯][t2 3]|
|lure||IPA: [ʊə̯][t2 4]||IPA: [ʊə̯]||IPA: [ʊɚ̯][t2 3]|
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Canadian English exhibits allophony of IPA: /aʊ̯/ and IPA: /aɪ̯/ called Canadian raising. GA and RP have raising to a lesser extent in IPA: /aɪ̯/.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 The erstwhile monophthongs IPA: /iː/ and IPA: /uː/ are diphthongized in many dialects. In many cases they might be better transcribed as IPA: [uu̯] and IPA: [ii̯], where the non-syllabic element is understood to be closer than the syllabic element. They are sometimes transcribed IPA: /uw/ and IPA: /ij/.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 In rhotic dialects, words like pair, poor, and peer can be analyzed as diphthongs, although other descriptions analyze them as vowels with IPA: [ɹ] in the coda.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 In Received Pronunciation, the vowels in lair and lure may be monophthongized to IPA: [ɛː] and IPA: [oː] respectively (Roach (2004:240)). Australian English speakers more readily monophthongize the former.
|zout||IPA: [ʌʊ̯]||IPA: [ɔʊ̯]|
|beet[t1 1]||IPA: [eɪ̯]||IPA: [eː]|
|neus[t1 1]||IPA: [øʏ̯]||IPA: [øː]|
|boot[t1 1]||IPA: [oʊ̯]||IPA: [oː]|
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 IPA: [eɪ̯], IPA: [øʏ̯], and IPA: [oʊ̯] are normally pronounced as closing diphthongs except before IPA: [ɾ] in the same word, in which case they are centering diphthongs: IPA: [eə̯], IPA: [øə̯], and IPA: [oə̯]. In many dialects, they are monophthongized (See Verhoeven & Van Bael (2002) for more information).
Phonemic diphthongs in German:
In the varieties of German that vocalize the IPA: /r/ in the syllable coda, other diphthongal combinations may occur. These are only phonetic diphthongs, not phonemic diphthongs, since the vocalic pronunciation IPA: [ɐ̯] alternates with consonantal pronunciations of IPA: /r/ if a vowel follows, cf. du hörst IPA: [duː ˈhøːɐ̯st] ‘you hear’ – ich höre IPA: [ʔɪç ˈhøːʀə] ‘I hear’. These phonetic diphthongs may be as follows:
- IPA: [eːɐ̯] as in er ‘he’
- IPA: [iːɐ̯] as in ihr ‘you (plural)’
- IPA: [oːɐ̯] as in Ohr ‘ear’
- IPA: [øːɐ̯] as in Öhr ‘eye (hole in a needle)’
- IPA: [uːɐ̯] as in Uhr ‘clock’
- IPA: [yːɐ̯] as in Tür ‘door’
- IPA: [aːɐ̯] as in wahr ‘true’
The diphthongs of some German dialects differ a lot from standard German diphthongs. The Bernese German diphthongs, for instance, correspond rather to the Middle High German diphthongs than to standard German diphthongs:
- IPA: /iə̯/ as in lieb ‘dear’
- IPA: /uə̯/ as in guet ‘good’
- IPA: /yə̯/ as in müed ‘tired’
- IPA: /ei̯/ as in Bei ‘leg’
- IPA: /ou̯/ as in Boum ‘tree’
- IPA: /øi̯/ as in Böim ‘trees’
Apart from these phonemic diphthongs, Bernese German has numerous phonetic diphthongs due to L-vocalization in the syllable coda, for instance the following ones:
- IPA: [au̯] as in Stau ‘stable’
- IPA: [aːu̯] as in Staau ‘steel’
- IPA: [æu̯] as in Wäut ‘world’
- IPA: [æːu̯] as in wääut ‘elects’
- IPA: [ʊu̯] as in tschúud ‘guilty’
- IPA: [ɛɪ̯] as in IPA: [plɛɪ̯tə] פּליטה ('refugee' f.)
- IPA: [aɛ̯] as in IPA: [naɛ̯n] נײַן ('nine')
- IPA: [ɔə̯] as in IPA: [ɔəf̯n̩] אופֿן ('way')
Diphthongs may reach a higher target position (towards IPA: /i/) in situations of coarticulatory phenomena or when words with such vowels are being emphasized.
There are five diphthongs in Norwegian:
- IPA: [æɪ̯] as in nei, "no"
- IPA: [øʏ̯] as in øy, "island"
- IPA: [æʉ̯] as in sau, "sheep"
- IPA: [ɑɪ̯] as in hai, "shark"
- IPA: [ɔʏ̯] as in joik, "Sami song"
An additional diphthong, IPA: [ʉ̫ʏ̯], occurs only in the word hui in the expression i hui og hast "in great haste". The number and form of diphthongs vary between dialects.
Diphthongs in Faroese are:
- IPA: /ai/ as in bein (can also be short)
- IPA: /au/ as in havn
- IPA: /ɛa/ as in har, mær
- IPA: /ɛi/ as in hey
- IPA: /ɛu/ as in nevnd
- IPA: /œu/ as in nøvn
- IPA: /ʉu/ as in hús
- IPA: /ʊi/ as in mín, bý, ið (can also be short)
- IPA: /ɔa/ as in ráð
- IPA: /ɔi/ as in hoyra (can also be short)
- IPA: /ɔu/ as in sól, ovn
Diphthongs in Icelandic are the following:
- IPA: /au̯/ as in átta, "eight"
- IPA: /ou̯/ as in nóg, "enough"
- IPA: /œy̯/ as in auga, "eye"
- IPA: /ai̯/ as in hæ, "hi"
- IPA: /ei̯/ as in þeir, "they"
Combinations of semivowel IPA: /j/ and a vowel are the following:
- IPA: /ja/ as in jata, "manger"
- IPA: /jau̯/ as in já, "yes"
- IPA: /jo/ as in joð, "iodine," "jay," "yod" (only in a handful of words of foreign origin)
- IPA: /jou̯/ as in jól, "Christmas"
- IPA: /jœ/ as in jötunn, "giant"
- IPA: /jai̯/ as in jæja, "oh well"
In French, IPA: /wa/, IPA: /wɛ̃/, and IPA: /ɥi/ may be considered true diphthongs (that is, fully contained in the syllable nucleus: IPA: [u̯a], [u̯ɛ̃], [y̯i]). Other sequences are considered part of a glide formation process that turns a high vowel into a semivowel (and part of the syllable onset) when followed by another vowel.
- IPA: /wa/ IPA: [u̯a] as in roi "king"
- IPA: /wɛ̃/ IPA: [u̯ɛ̃] as in groin "muzzle"
- IPA: /ɥi/ IPA: [y̯i] as in huit "eight"
- IPA: /wi/ as in oui "yes"
- IPA: /jɛ̃/ as in lien "bond"
- IPA: /jɛ/ as in Ariège
- IPA: /aj/ as in travail "work"
- IPA: /ɛj/ as in Marseille
- IPA: /œj/ as in feuille "leaf"
- IPA: /uj/ as in grenouille "frog"
- IPA: /jø/ as in vieux "old"
|IPA: [aj]||aigua||'water'||IPA: [aw]||taula||'table'|
|IPA: [əj]||mainada||'children'||IPA: [əw]||caurem||'we will fall'|
|IPA: [ɛj]||remei||'remedy'||IPA: [ɛw]||peu||'foot'|
|IPA: [ej]||rei||'king'||IPA: [ew]||seu||'his/her'|
|IPA: [ɔj]||noi||'boy'||IPA: [ɔw]||nou||'new'|
|IPA: [uj]||avui||'today'||IPA: [uw]||duu||'he/she is carrying'|
|IPA: [ja]||iaia||'grandma'||IPA: [wa]||quatre||'four'|
|IPA: [jɛ]||veiem||'we see'||IPA: [wɛ]||seqüència||'sequence'|
|IPA: [je]||seient||'seat'||IPA: [we]||ungüent||'ointment'|
|IPA: [jə]||feia||'he/she was doing'||IPA: [wə]||qüestió||'question'|
|IPA: [jɔ]||iode||'iodine'||IPA: [wɔ]||quota||'payment'|
- IPA: [j] in word initial position, e.g. iogurt.
- Both occur between vowels as in feia and veiem.
- In the sequences IPA: [ɡw] or IPA: [kw] and vowel, e.g. guant, quota, qüestió, pingüí (these exceptional cases even lead some scholars to hypothesize the existence of rare labiovelar phonemes IPA: /ɡʷ/ and IPA: /kʷ/).
There are also certain instances of compensatory diphthongization in the Majorcan dialect so that IPA: /ˈtroncs/ ('logs') (in addition to deleting the palatal plosive) develops a compensating palatal glide and surfaces as IPA: [ˈtrojns] (and contrasts with the unpluralized IPA: [ˈtronʲc]). Diphthongization compensates for the loss of the palatal stop (part of Catalan's segment loss compensation). There are other cases where diphthongization compensates for the loss of point of articulation features (property loss compensation) as in IPA: [ˈaɲ] ('year') vs IPA: [ˈajns] ('years'). The dialectal distribution of this compensatory diphthongization is almost entirely dependent on the dorsal plosive (whether it is velar or palatal) and the extent of consonant assimilation (whether or not it is extended to palatals).
Portuguese[are these diphthongs, or VC?]
- Main article: Portuguese phonology
The Portuguese diphthongs are formed by the labio-velar approximant IPA: [w] and palatal approximant IPA: [j] with a vowel, European Portuguese has 14 phonemic diphthongs (10 oral and 4 nasal), all of which are falling diphthongs formed by a vowel and a nonsyllabic high vowel. Brazilian Portuguese has roughly the same amount, although the two dialects have slightly different pronunciations. A IPA: [w] onglide after IPA: /k/ or IPA: /ɡ/ as in quando IPA: [ˈkwɐ̃dʊ] ('when') or guarda IPA: [ˈɡwaɾdɐ] ('guard') may also form rising diphthongs and triphthongs. Additionally, in casual speech, adjacent heterosyllabic vowels may combine into diphthongs and triphthongs or even sequences of them.
|sai||IPA: [aj]||mau||IPA: [aw]|
|sei||IPA: [ɐj]||IPA: [ej]||meu||IPA: [ew]|
|anéis||IPA: [ɛj]||véu||IPA: [ɛw]|
|moita||IPA: [oj]||dou||IPA: [ow]|
|mãe||IPA: [ɐ̃j]||IPA: [ɐ̃j]||mão||IPA: [ɐ̃w]|
In addition, phonetic diphthongs are formed in Brazilian Portuguese by the vocalization of IPA: /l/ in the syllable coda with words like sol IPA: [sɔw] ('sun') and sul IPA: [suw] ('south') as well as by yodization of vowels preceding IPA: /s/ in words like arroz IPA: [aˈʁojs] ('rice') and mas IPA: [majs] ('but').
Spanish has six falling diphthongs and eight rising diphthongs. In addition, during fast speech, sequences of vowels in hiatus become diphthongs wherein one becomes non-syllabic (unless they are the same vowel, in which case they fuse together) as in poeta IPA: [ˈpo̯eta] ('poet') and maestro IPA: [ˈmae̯stɾo] ('teacher'). The Spanish diphthongs are:
|IPA: [ai̯]||aire||'air'||IPA: [au̯]||pausa||'pause'|
|IPA: [ei̯]||rey||'king'||IPA: [eu̯]||neutro||'neutral'|
|IPA: [oi̯]||hoy||'today'||IPA: [ou̯]||bou||'seine fishing'|
|IPA: [ja]||hacia||'towards'||IPA: [wa]||cuadro||'picture'|
|IPA: [je]||tierra||'earth'||IPA: [we]||fuego||'fire'|
|IPA: [wi]||fuimos||'we went'|
|IPA: [jo]||radio||'radio'||IPA: [wo]||cuota||'quota'|
In standard Italian, only falling diphthongs are considered to be true diphthongs. Rising diphthongs are considered to be sequences of approximant and vowel. The diphthongs of Italian are:
|IPA: [ai̯]||baita||'mountain hut'||IPA: [au̯]||auto||'car'|
|IPA: [ei̯]||potei||'I could'||IPA: [eu̯]||pleurite||'pleurisy'|
|IPA: [ɛi̯]||sei||'six'||IPA: [ɛu̯]||neutro||'neuter'|
|IPA: [oi̯]||voi||'you' (pl.)|
|IPA: [ja]||chiave||'key'||IPA: [wa]||guado||'ford'|
|IPA: [jɛ]||pieno||'full'||IPA: [wɛ]||quercia||'oak'|
|IPA: [je]||soffietto||'bellows'||IPA: [we]||quello||'that'|
|IPA: [jɔ]||chiodo||'nail'||IPA: [wɔ]||quota||'quota'|
|IPA: [jo]||fiore||'flower'||IPA: [wo]||acquoso||'watery'|
In general, unstressed IPA: /i e o u/ in hiatus can turn into glides in more rapid speech (e.g. biennale IPA: [bi̯enˈnaːle] 'biennial'; coalizione IPA: [ko̯alitˈtsi̯oːne] 'coalition') with the process occurring more readily in syllables further from stress.
- Main article: Romanian phonology
Romanian has two diphthongs: IPA: /e̯a/ and IPA: /o̯a/. As a result of their origin (diphthongization of mid vowels under stress), they appear only in stressed syllables and make morphological alternations with the mid vowels IPA: /e/ and IPA: /o/. To native speakers, they sound very similar to IPA: /ja/ and IPA: /wa/ respectively. There are no perfect minimal pairs to contrast IPA: /o̯a/ and IPA: /wa/, and because IPA: /o̯a/ doesn't appear in the final syllable of a prosodic word, there are no monosyllabic words with IPA: /o̯a/; exceptions might include voal ('veil') and trotuar ('sidewalk'), though Ioana Chiţoran argues that these are best treated as containing glide-vowel sequences rather than diphthongs. In addition to these, the semivowels IPA: /j/ and IPA: /w/ can be combined (either before, after, or both) with most vowels, while this arguably forms additional diphthongs and triphthongs, only IPA: /e̯a/ and IPA: /o̯a/ can follow an obstruent-liquid cluster such as in broască ('frog') and dreagă ('to mend'). implying that IPA: /j/ and IPA: /w/ are restricted to the syllable boundary and therefore, strictly speaking, do not form diphthongs.
All Irish diphthongs are falling.
- IPA: [əi̯], spelled aigh, aidh, agh, adh, eagh, eadh, eigh, or eidh
- IPA: [əu̯], spelled abh, amh, eabh, or eamh
- IPA: [iə̯], spelled ia, iai
- IPA: [uə̯], spelled ua, uai
- i(j)e, as in mlijeko
There are three diphthongs in Czech:
- IPA: /aʊ̯/ as in auto (almost exclusively in words of foreign origin)
- IPA: /eʊ̯/ as in euro (in words of foreign origin only)
- IPA: /oʊ̯/ as in koule
- Main article: Estonian phonology
All nine vowels can appear as the first component of an Estonian diphthong, but only [ɑ e i o u] occur as the second component.
"in spite of"
"face" (s. possessive)
- Main article: Finnish phonology
All Finnish diphthongs are falling. Notably, Finnish has true opening diphthongs (e.g. IPA: /uo/), which are not very common crosslinguistically compared to centering diphthongs (e.g. IPA: /uə/ in English). Vowel combinations across syllables may in practice be pronounced as diphthongs, when an intervening consonant has elided, e.g. in näön [næøn] instead of [næ.øn] < genitive of näkö "sight".
- IPA: [ɑi̯] as in laiva (ship)
- IPA: [ei̯] as in keinu (swing)
- IPA: [oi̯] as in poika (boy)
- IPA: [æi̯] as in äiti (mother)
- IPA: [øi̯] as in öisin (at nights)
- IPA: [ɑu̯] as in lauha (mild)
- IPA: [eu̯] as in leuto (mild)
- IPA: [ou̯] as in koulu (school)
- IPA: [ey̯] as in leyhyä (to waft)
- IPA: [æy̯] as in täysi (full)
- IPA: [øy̯] as in löytää (to find)
- IPA: [ui̯] as in uida (to swim)
- IPA: [yi̯] as in lyijy (lead)
- IPA: [iu̯] as in viulu (violin)
- IPA: [iy̯] as in siistiytyä (to smarten up)
The diphthong system in Northern Sami varies considerably from one dialect to another. The Western Finnmark dialects distinguish four different qualities of opening diphthongs:
- IPA: /eæ/ as in leat "to be"
- IPA: /ie/ as in giella "language"
- IPA: /oa/ as in boahtit "to come"
- IPA: /uo/ as in vuodjat "to swim"
In terms of quantity, Northern Sami shows a three-way contrast between long, short and finally stressed diphthongs. The last are distinguished from long and short diphthongs by a markedly long and stressed second component. Diphthong quantity is not indicated in spelling.
- IPA: [ɛɪ̯] ej or għi
- IPA: [ɐɪ̯] aj or għi
- IPA: [ɔɪ̯] oj
- IPA: [ɪʊ̯] iw
- IPA: [ɛʊ̯] ew
- IPA: [ɐʊ̯] aw or għu
- IPA: [ɔʊ̯] ow or għu
- ai: IPA: [aɪ̯], as in ài (愛, love)
- ei: IPA: [eɪ̯], as in lèi (累, tired)
- ao: IPA: [ɑʊ̯], as in dào (道, way)
- ou: IPA: [oʊ̯], as in dòu (豆, bean)
However, the four rising sequences below can be considered diphthongs as they are analogous to IPA: [ɨ], [i], [u] and [y] respectively and the bare vowel nucleus mostly only occurs along with the corresponding medial.
- e: IPA: [ɰʌ], as in hē (喝, to drink)
- ye/-ie: IPA: [jɛ], as in xié (斜, tilted)
- wo/-uo: IPA: [wɔ], as in wǒ (我, I)
- yue/-üe: IPA: [ɥœ], as in yuè (月, moon)
Zulu has only monophthongs. Y and w are semi-vowels:
- IPA: [ja] as in IPA: [ŋijaɠuˈɓɛːɠa] ngiyakubeka (I am placing it)
- IPA: [wa] as in IPA: [ŋiːwa] ngiwa (I fall/I am falling)
- Index of phonetics articles
- Table of vowels
- Vowel cluster
- Vowel breaking
- ^ Template:Dictionary.com
- ^ definition of 'Diphthong' on SIL International, accessed 17 January 2008
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Chițoran (2002a:203)
- ^ Kaye & Lowenstamm (1984:139)
- ^ Schane (1995:588)
- ^ Padgett (2007:1938)
- ^ Schane (1995:606)
- ^ Schane (1995:589, 606)
- ^ Gussenhoven (1992:46)
- ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
- ^ Verhoeven (2007:221)
- ^ Kleine (2003:263)
- ^ Chitoran (2001:11)
- ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
- ^ Institut d'Estudis Catalans Els diftongs, els triftongs i els hiats – Gramàtica de la Llengua Catalana (provisional draft)
- ^ e.g. Lleó (1970), Wheeler (1979)
- ^ Wheeler (2005:101)
- ^ Mascaró (2002:580–581)
- ^ Mascaró (2002:581)
- ^ Faria (2003:7)
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 Cruz-Ferreira (1995:92)
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Barbosa & Albano (2004:230)
- ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:256)
- ^ Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005:138)
- ^ Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005:139)
- ^ Chițoran (2002a:204)
- ^ Chițoran (2002a:206)
- ^ Chițoran (2002b:217)
- ^ See Chițoran (2001:8–9) for a brief overview of the views regarding Romanian semivowels
- ^ Chițoran (2002b:213)
- ^ (Croatian) Vjesnik Babić ne zagovara korijenski pravopis, nego traži da Hrvati ne piju mlijeko nego – mlieko
- ^ (Croatian) Kolo Josip Lisac: Štokavsko narječje: prostiranje i osnovne značajke
- ^ Borg & Azzopardi-Alexander (1997:299)
- ^ Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993:25)
- Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756
- Bertinetto, Pier Marco; Loporcaro, Michele (2005), "The sound pattern of Standard Italian, as compared with the varieties spoken in Florence, Milan and Rome", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 131–151, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002148
- Borg, Albert J.; Azzopardi-Alexander, Marie (1997), Maltese, Routledge, ISBN 0415022436
- Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1-2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
- Chițoran, Ioana (2001), The Phonology of Romanian: A Constraint-based Approach, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3110167662
- Chițoran, Ioana (2002a), "A perception-production study of Romanian diphthongs and glide-vowel sequences", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 32 (2): 203–222, doi:10.1017/S0025100302001044
- Chițoran, Ioana (2002b), "The phonology and morphology of Romanian diphthongization", Probus 14 (2): 205–246, doi:10.1515/prbs.2002.009
- Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
- Faria, Arlo (2003), Applied Phonetics: Portuguese Text-to-Speech, University of California, Berkeley, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.134.8785&rep=rep1&type=pdf
- Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
- Kaye, Jonathan; Lowenstamm, Jean (1984), "De la syllabicité", in François Dell, François; Vergnaud; Hirst, Daniel, La forme sonore du langage, Paris: Hermann, pp. 123–159, http://18.104.22.168/~scheer/scan/Kaye&Low84.pdf
- Kleine, Ane (2003), "Standard Yiddish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 261–265, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001385
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- Mascaró, Joan (1976) (Doctoral thesis), Catalan Phonology and the Phonological Cycle, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768
- Padgett, Jaye (2007), "Glides, Vowels, and Features", Lingua 118 (12): 1937–1955, doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2007.10.002
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- Verhoeven, Jo; Van Bael, C. (2002), "Akoestische kenmerken van de Nederlandse klinkers in drie Vlaamse regio’s", Taal en Tongval 54: 1–23
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